Past Tense Versus Past Perfect Tense

PAST PERFECT
If you tell a story it’s sometimes necessary to tell about actions that had happened before the past tense. To express the time when these actions happened you have to use the past perfect.
How to form: had (not) + 3rd form
Key words: after, before

Examples:
She needed help because someone had stolen her car.
He passed the test because he had studied a lot.
After she had done her homework she visited me.
When I came home they had already eaten.
They had sold everything before they moved to Glasgow.

THE PAST TENSE
Regular verbs

How to form: Infinitive (=1st form) + ed = 2nd form

Examples: walk + ed walked
laugh + ed laughed
want + ed wanted

Note: cry cried y → i
carry carried y → i
love loved no e
hope hoped e fällt weg
stop stopped if you speak a short vowel → doubling
drop dropped Bei kurz gesprochenen Vokal → Verdopplung
Key words: yesterday, last week (month, Monday, October,…), in 1984, ago

Negation: didn’t (= did not) + 1st form
He didn’t go to her last party.
They didn’t like his story.
BUT: was not (wasn’t), were not (weren’t), could not (couldn’t)

Question: did + 1st form
Did he go to her last party?
Did they like his story?
BUT: Was he angry? Were they late? Could they swim?

Irregular verbs

Examples: 1st form 2nd form 1st form 2nd form
am, is was see saw
are were do did
get got take took
go went have had


TENSES
PRESENT SIMPLE PRESENT PROGRESSIVE

1st form / he, she, it + s // they go , he goes am / is / are + verb + ing // I am going

with habits and general statements to express when something is happening at the moment

key words: always, often, usually, every, never, generally, seldom, rarely, hardly ever, sometimes, normally key words: look, listen, now, at the moment

PAST SIMPLE PAST PROGRESSIVE

2nd form // he went, they played was / were + ing form // he was going

used to tell or talk about a past action used to tell or talk about a long action in the past

key words: yesterday, last, ago, in 1970 key words: while, when

WILL FUTURE GOING TO FUTURE

will + 1st form ( N.: won’t) // he will be, she will go am / is / are + going to + verb
He is going to play tennis tomorrow.

used to talk about the future used to talk about a future action that is planned
(wird verwendet, wenn man über die Zukunft spricht.) (wird verwendet, wenn man etwas schon fix geplant oder beschlossen hat.)

key words: tomorrow, next key words: tomorrow, next

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

have / has + 3rd form // she has gone have / has + been + ing form // he has been
going

used when a past action started in the past and has just finished or is still happening. is used like the simle form but only with long actions

key words:already, just, ever, never, yet, for, since key words: how long, all day, for, since

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE

had + 3rd form // she had gone had been + ing form // he had been going

used when a action happened befor another action used like the simple form but only with long actions

key words: after, before key words: how long, before, after

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